Calculator
for cylindrical tension bar 

Diameter of the bar D 
10^{3} m 
Length of the bar in tension L 
10^{3} m 
Modulus of elasticity E 
10^{9}
Pa 
Load F 
N 

Cross section area A = π/4 D^{2} 
10^{6}
m^{2} 
Tensile stress σ = F / A^{ 1)} 
10^{6}
Pa 
Deflection δ = F L / (A E) 
10^{3} m 
Stiffness k = dF / dδ 
10^{6} N/m 
The simplest spring is the tension bar but its deformation
is small if it's made of metal. Many machine elements like
bolts are to be considered as high stiffness spring
elements. The compliance of the clamped material and the
bolt stiffness predominate the quality of the joint. Simply
Hook's law is to be applied to calculate the spring
characteristics of for example bicycle spokes. 

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