Mechanical properties of metals and metal alloys

 

Structural steel (hot rolled)
Free cutting steel (not intended for heath treatment)
Free cutting steel (for case hardening)
Free cutting steel (untreated and heath treated)
Steels for quenching and tempering (quenched and tempered)
Steels for quenching and tempering (normalized)
Alloy steel (quenched and tempered)
Stainless steel
Cast iron
Spring steel
Bearing bronze
Materials for fasteners
Max shear stress
  
Structural steel
hot rolled, non-alloy steels
material   Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] 
name nr d<16 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 <3 ≤100
S235JR 1.0038 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S235JO 1.0114 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S235J2 1.0117 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S275JR 1.0044 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S275JO 1.0143 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S275J2 1.0145 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S355JR 1.0045 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355J0 1.0553 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355J2 1.0577 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355K2 1.0596 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S450J0 1.0590 450 430 410 390 380 - 550-720
E295 1.0050 295 285       490-660 470-610
E335 1.0060 335 325       590-770 570-710
E360 1.0070 360 355       690-900 670-830
E295...E360: bearing and drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.
 
Structural steel
hot-rolled, non-alloy, normalized, weldable fine grain
material Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] A
name nr d<16 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 ≤100 %
S275N 1.0490 275 265 255 245 235 370-510 23-24
S275NL 1.0491 275 265 255 245 235 370-510 23-24
S355N 1.0545 355 345 335 325 315 470-630 21-22
S355NL 1.0546 355 345 335 325 315 470-630 21-22
S420N 1.8902 420 400 390 370 360 520-680 18-19
S420NL 1.8912 420 400 390 370 360 520-680 18-19
S460N 1.8901 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 17
S460NL 1.8903 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 17
 
Structural steel
thermo-mechanically rolled, weldable fine grain
material Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] A
name nr <16 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 %
S275M 1.8818 275 265 255 245 245 370-530 360-520 350-510 350-510 24
S275ML 1.8819 275 265 255 245 245 370-530 360-520 350-510 350-510 24
S355M 1.8823 355 345 335 325 325 470-630 450-610 440-600 440-600 22
S355ML 1.8834 355 345 335 325 325 470-630 450-610 440-600 440-600 22
S420M 1.8825 420 400 390 380 370 520-680 500-660 480-640 470-630 19
S420ML 1.8836 420 400 390 380 370 520-680 500-660 480-640 470-630 19
S460M 1.8827 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 530-710 510-690 500-680 17
S460ML 1.8838 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 530-710 510-690 500-680 17

Free cutting steel
not intended for heath treatment
name nr Diam [mm] Hardness [HB] Rm [MPa]
11SMn30 
11SMNPb30 
11SMn37
11SMnPb37
1.0715 
1.0718
1.0736
1.0737
5≤10 - 380-570
10 < d ≤16 - 380-570
16 < d ≤40 112-169 380-570
40 < d ≤63 109-169 370-570
63 < d ≤100 107-154 360-520

Free cutting steel
case hardening steel, untreated
name nr Diam [mm] Hardness HB Rm [MPa]
10S20
10SPb20
1.0721
1.0722
5≤10 - 360-530
10 < d ≤16 - 360-530
16 < d ≤40 107-156 360-530
40 < d ≤63 107-156 360-530
6 3 < d ≤100 105-146 350-490
15SMn13 1.0725 5≤10 - 430-610
10 < d ≤16 - 430-600
16 < d ≤40 128-178 430-600
40 < d ≤63 128-172 430-580
6 3 < d ≤100 125-160 420-540

Free cutting steel
direct hardening steel
      Untreated Quenched and Tempered
material Diam d Hardness Rm Re Rm A
name nr mm HB [MPa] MPa MPa %min
35S20
35SPb20
1.0726
1.0756
5 ≤ d ≤10 - 550-720 430 630-780 15
10 < d ≤16 - 550-700 430 630-780 15
16 < d ≤40 154-201 520-680 380 600-750 16
40 < d ≤63 154-198 520-670 320 550-700 17
63 < d ≤100 149-193 500-650 320 550-700 17
36SMn14 
36SMnPb14
1.0764
1.0765
5≤10 - 580-770 480 700-850 14
10 < d ≤16 - 580-770 460 700-850 14
16 < d ≤40 166-222 560-750 420 670-820 15
40 < d ≤63 166-219 560-740 400 640-790 16
63 < d ≤100 163-219 550-740 360 570-720 17
38SMn28
38SMnPb28
1.0760
1.0761
5≤10 - 580-780 480 700-850 15
10 < d ≤16 - 580-750 460 700-850 15
16 < d ≤40 166-216 560-730 420 700-850 15
40 < d ≤63 166-216 560-730 400 700-850 16
63 < d ≤100 163-207 550-700 380 630-800 16
44SMn28
44SMnPb28
1.0762
1.0763
5≤10 - 630-900 520 700-850 16
10 < d ≤16 - 630-850 480 700-850 16
16 < d ≤40 187-242 630-820 420 700-850 16
40 < d ≤63 184-235 620-790 410 700-850 16
63 < d ≤100 181-231 610-780 400 700-850 16
46S20
46SPb20
1.0727
1.0757
5≤10 - 590-800 490 700-850 12
10 < d ≤16 - 590-780 490 700-850 12
16 < d ≤40 175-225 590-760 430 650-800 13
40 < d ≤63 172-216 580-730 370 630-780 14
63 < d ≤100 166-211 560-710 370 630-780 14

Steels for quenching and tempering (quenched and tempered)
non-alloy quality steel
    d <16 
t =<8
16 < d = < 40
8 < t = < 20
material Re Rm A Re Rm A
name nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa %

C35

1.0501

430

630-780

17

380

600-750

19

C40

1.0511

460

650-800

16

400

630-780

18

C45

1.0503

490

700-850

14

430

650-800

16

C55

1.0535

550

800-950

12

490

750-900

14

C60

1.0601

580

850-1000

11

520

800-950

13

Special steels

C22E

1.1151

340

500-650

20

290

470-620

22

C35E

1.1181

430

630-780

17

380

600-750

19

C40E

1.1186

460

650-800

16

400

630-780

18

C45E

1.1191

490

700-850

14

430

650-800

16

C50E

1.1206

520

750-900

13

460

700-850

15

C55E

1.1203

550

800-950

12

490

750-900

14

C60E

1.1221

580

850-1000

11

520

800-950

13

28Mn6

1.1170

590

800-950

13

490

700-850

15

(Source)

Steels for quenching and tempering (Normalized)
non-alloy quality steel
    d <16 
t =< 16
16 < d = < 100
16 < t = < 100
100 < d = < 250
100 < t = < 250
material Re Rm A Re Rm A Re Rm A
name nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
C35 1.0501 300 550 18 270 520 19 245 500 19
C40 1.0511 320 580 16 290 550 17 260 530 17
C45 1.0503 340 620 14 305 580 16 275 560 16
C55 1.0535 370 680 11 330 640 12 300 620 12
C60 1.0601 380 710 10 340 670 11 310 650 11
Special Steels
C22E 1.1151 240 430 24 210 410 25 - - -
C35E 1.1181 300 550 18 270 520 19 245 500 19
C40E 1.1186 320 580 16 290 550 17 260 530 17
C45E 1.1191 340 620 14 305 580 16 275 560 16
C50E 1.1206 355 650 13 320 610 14 290 590 14
C55E 1.1203 370 680 11 330 640 12 300 620 12
C60E 1.1221 380 710 10 340 670 11 310 650 11
28Mn6 1.1170 345 630 17 310 600 18 290 590 18
 
Alloy steel (quenched and tempered)
    d <16 
t =<8
16 < d = < 40
8 < t = < 20
material Re Rm A Re Rm A
name nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
38Cr2 1.7003 550 800-950 14 450 700-850 15
46Cr2 1.7006 650 900-1100 12 550 800-950 14
34Cr4 1.7033 700 900-1100 12 590 800-950 14
34CrS4 1.7037 700 900-1100 12 590 800-950 14
37Cr4 1.7034 750 950-1150 11 630 850-1000 13
37CrS4 1.7038 750 950-1150 11 630 850-1000 13
41Cr4 1.7035 800 1000-1200 11 660 900-1100 12
41CrS4 1.7039 800 1000-1200 11 660 900-1100 12
25CrMo4 1.7218 700 900-1100 12 600 800-950 14
25CrMoS4 1.7213 700 900-1100 12 600 800-950 14
34CrMo4 1.7220 800 1000-1200 11 650 900-1100 12
34CrMoS4 1.7226 800 1000-1200 11 650 900-1100 12
42CrMo4 1.7225 900 1100-1300 10 750 1000-1200 11
42CrMoS4 1.7227 900 1100-1300 10 750 1000-1200 11
50CrMo4 1.7228 900 1100-1300 9 780 1000-1200 10
34CrNiMo6 1.6582 1000 1200-1400 9 900 1100-1300 10
30CrNiMo6 1.6580 1050 1250-1450 9 1050 1250-1450 9
35NiCr6 1.5815 740 880-1080 12 740 880-1080 14
36NICrMo16 1.6773 1050 1250-1450 9 1050 1250-1450 9
39NiCrMo3 1.6510 785 980-1180 11 735 930-1130 11
30NiCrMo16-16 1.6747 880 1080-1230 10 880 1080-1230 10
51CrV4 1.8159 900 1100-1300 9 800 1000-1200 10
20MnB5 1.5530 700 900-1050 14 600 750-900 15
30MnB5 1.5531 800 950-1150 13 650 800-950 13
38MnB5 1.5532 900 1050- 1250 12 700 850-1050 12
27MnCrB5-2 1.7182 800 1000-1250 14 750 900-1150 14
33MnCrB5-2 1.7185 850 1050 1300 13 800 950-1200 13
39MnCrB5-2 1.7189 900 1100-1350 12 850 1050-1250 12
(Source)

Stainless steel (selection)

Material

Rm

Re

A

name

nr

ANSI

MPa

MPa

%

X10CrNi18-8

1.4310

301

500...740

195...205

35...40

X8CrNiS-18-9

1.4305

303

500...700

190

35

X5CrNi18-10

1.4301

304

540...750

230

45

2CrNi19-11

1.4306

304L

520...660

250

45

2CrNi18-9

1.4307

304L

520...670

220

45

X5CrNiMo17-12-2

1.4401

316

540...680

195...205

35...40

X3CrNiMo17-13-3

1.4436

316

550...700

240

40

X2CrNiMo17-13-2

1.4404

316L

520...660

195

40

X2CrNiMo18-14-3

1.4435

316L

500...700

200

45

X6CrNiMoTi1712-2

1.4571

316Ti

540...680

215

40

X6CrNiTi18-10

1.4541

321

540...680

205

40

X12Cr13

1.4006

410

<600

 

20

X20Cr13

1.4021

420

<700

 

15

X30Cr13

1.4028

420

<740

 

15

X6Cr17

1.4016

430

440...590

255

20

X3CrTi17

1.4510

439

430...630

205

20

X2CrTiNb18

14509

441

430/630

250

20

X2CrNiMoN22-5-3

1.4462

duplex

640...880

480

25

Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non-magnetic
Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic, not intended for heath treatment (Source)
 
Cast iron

 

Rm

Re

A

E-modulus

name

MPa

MPa

%

GPa

EN-GJL-150

150...250

100...165

0.8...0.3

78...103

EN-GJL-200

200...300

130...195

0.8...0.3

88...113

EN-GJL-250

250...350

165...230

0.8...0.3

103...118

EN-GJL-300

300...400

195...260

0.8...0.3

108...137

EN-GJS-350-22-LT

350...400

220...280

30...22

160...185

EN-GJS-400-18-LT

400...450

250...300

27...18

160...185

EN-GJS-400-15

400...550

250...350

27...15

160...185

EN-GJS-450-10

450...600

310...410

20...10

160...185

EN-GJS-500-7

500...650

320...420

18...7

160...185

EN-GJS-600-3

600...750

370...480

8...3

160...185

EN-GJS-700-2

700...850

420...600

6...2

160...185

EN-GJS-800-2

800...1000

480...750

4...2

160...185

GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite - the 250 and 300 are hard wearing. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, for heath treatment, from 500 hard wearing (Source_1 , Source_2).
 
Spring steel

Material

nr

Rm [MPa]

E [GPa]

G [GPa]

Spring steel (Music wire)

1.1200

2220 - 820 log d

206

815

Stainless steel (ANSI 301)

1.4310

0.85(2220 - 820 log d)

190

73

The mechanical properties relate to the diameter of the wire. As a rule of thumb Rm=2220 - 820 log d, according EN 10270-1-SH for steel nr. 1.1200. For stainless steel 1.4310 the tensile strength is 15% less, according EN 10270-3-NS. The max bending stress is taken 0.7Rm, the max torsional stress 0.4Rm, when statically loaded. Statically loaded is defined for up to 20 to 50 thousand load cycles. The max stress is taken 40% less when loaded for more than 10 million load cycles.
 
Bearing steels
material Untreated Quenched and tempered
name nr Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] Re [MPa]
100Cr2 1.3501        
100Cr6 1.3505        
100CrMn6 1.3520        
16CrNoMo6 1.3531        
19MnCr5 1.3523        
44Cr2 1.3561        
(Source)

Bearing bronze

Bronze

EN

Re

Rm

HB

oil lubricated

CuSn7ZnPb

2.1090

120

270

>70

general bearing bronze

Cu Sn12

2.1052

140

280

>90

tin bronze for high load

CuSn12Pb

2.1061

140

280

>85

lead bronze, improved slide ability

CuSn12Ni

2.1060

170

300

>90

with nickel, for worm gears

CuPb15Sn

2.1182

110

220

>65

soft, suitable for water lubrication

Shaft-hardness >HB165, shaft material E335, roughness Ra<1Ám, pmax<10MPa (<0.2m/s)

(Source)

Un-alloyed carbon steel

Grade

 

UTS [MPa]

0.2% YS [MPa]

 

EN

e3)  ≤16

e3) > 16

e3) < 3

e3)  ≥3

S235JR

1.0037

235

225

360 - 510

360 - 510

S235J0

1.0114

235

225

360 - 510

360 - 510

S235J2 

1.0116

235

225

360 - 510

340 - 470

S275JR

1.0044

275

265

430 - 580

410 - 560

S275J0

1.0143

275

265

430 - 580

410 - 560

S275J2

1.0144

275

265

430 - 580

410 - 560

S355JR

1.0045

355

345

510 - 680

470 - 630

S355J0

1.0553

355

345

510 - 680

470 - 630

S355J2 

1.0570

355

345

510 - 680

470 - 630

S355K2 

1.0595

355

345

510 - 680

470 - 630

E295

1.0050

295

285

490 - 660

470 - 610

E335

1.0060

335

325

590 - 770

570 - 710

E360

1.0070

360

355

690 - 900

670 - 830

S235...S355: structural parts, good weld ability and cutting.
E295...E360: drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.
 
Stainless steel (RVS)

Grade

UTS

0.2% YS

DIN

EN

 

MPa

MPa

%

X10CrNi18-8

1.4310

301

500...740

195...205

35...40

X8CrNiS-18-9

1.4305

303

500...700

190

35

X5CrNi18-10

1.4301

304

540...750

230

45

2CrNi19-11

1.4306

304L

520...660

250

45

2CrNi18-9

1.4307

304L

520...670

220

45

X5CrNiMo17-12-2

1.4401

316

540...680

195...205

35...40

X3CrNiMo17-13-3

1.4436

316

550...700

240

40

X2CrNiMo17-13-2

1.4404

316L

520...660

195

40

X2CrNiMo18-14-3

1.4435

316L

500...700

200

45

X6CrNiMoTi1712-2

1.4571

316Ti

540...680

215

40

X6CrNiTi18-10

1.4541

321

540...680

205

40

X12Cr13

1.4006

410

<600

 

20

X20Cr13

1.4021

420

<700

 

15

X30Cr13

1.4028

420

<740

 

15

X6Cr17

1.4016

430

440...590

255

20

X3CrTi17

1.4510

439

430...630

205

20

X2CrTiNb18

14509

441

430/630

250

20

X2CrNiMoN22-5-3

1.4462

duplex

640...880

480

25

Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non magnetic
Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic, suitable for heath treatment (Source)
 
Cast iron

Grade

Rm

0.2% YS

E-modulus

 

MPa

MPa

%

GPa

EN-GJL-150

150...250

100...165

0.8...0.3

78...103

EN-GJL-200

200...300

130...195

0.8...0.3

88...113

EN-GJL-250

250...350

165...230

0.8...0.3

103...118

EN-GJL-300

300...400

195...260

0.8...0.3

108...137

EN-GJS-350-22-LT

350...400

220...280

30...22

160...185

EN-GJS-400-18-LT

400...450

250...300

27...18

160...185

EN-GJS-400-15

400...550

250...350

27...15

160...185

EN-GJS-450-10

450...600

310...410

20...10

160...185

EN-GJS-500-7

500...650

320...420

18...7

160...185

EN-GJS-600-3

600...750

370...480

8...3

160...185

EN-GJS-700-2

700...850

420...600

6...2

160...185

EN-GJS-800-2

800...1000

480...750

4...2

160...185

GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite - the 250 and 300 have very good wear resistance. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, suitable for heat treatment, from 500 hard wearing, gears (Source_1 , Source_2).
 
Material properties and identification of fasteners
Material Rm [MPa]  
Austenitic RVS
A1, A2, A3, A4, A5
500 - soft
700 - work hardened
800 - work hardened
 
 
Martensitic RVS
C1
500 - soft
700 -
1100
 
 
CU1
CU2
CU3
CU4
CU5
CU6
CU7
240
440
440
470
590
440
640
 
(Source)
 
Relationships between Shear strength and tensile strength
Material Shearing Yielding
Wrought Steel & alloy steel UST ≈ 0,75 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,58 x YS
Ductile iron UST ≈ 0,90 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,75 x YS
Malleable iron -Pearlitic UST ≈ 1,0 x UTS -
Wrought iron UST ≈ 0,83 x UTS -
Cast iron UST ≈ 1,3 x UTS -
Copper & alloys UST ≈ 0,65 x UTS -
Aluminium & alloys UST ≈ 0,65 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,55 x YS
 
UTS Ultimate tensile stress
UST Ultimate shear stress
SSY Shear stress yield
YS Tensile yield stress
(Source
 
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