TourTour maximum dynamic load
 Metric thread -
 Joint stiffness factor S
 Minimum value of clamping force Fm/F0.2
ISO 724 pitch P mm
ISO 724 pitch diameter d2 mm
ISO 724 root diameter d3 mm
ISO 724 tensile stress area At =π/4 d02 ; d0=(d2+d3)/2 mm2
 ultimate tensile strength Rm  MPa
 yield strength Rp0.2 MPa
 maximum tensile load F0.2 MPa
 fatigue strength σa MPa
 load fluctuation bolt ΔFi=2Fa kN
 load fluctuation clamped material ΔFm kN
 minimum  value of preload Fi,min=Fm+ΔFm kN
 maximum value of preload Fi,max=F0.2-ΔFi kN
 Maximum dynamic load1 FbFiFm kN
 1Endurance limit